by Ayo Ibiyemi Ayo Ibiyemi No Comments

Understanding and Combating Coccidiosis: Causes and Solutions

Coccidiosis is a common parasitic disease affecting various animals, caused by microscopic organisms known as coccidia. While coccidiosis can impact several species, including birds, livestock, and even humans, it is particularly prevalent in poultry, causing significant economic losses in the poultry industry. In this article, we’ll delve into the causes, symptoms, and effective solutions to manage and prevent coccidiosis.

Causes of Coccidiosis:

Coccidia are single-celled parasites that multiply in the intestinal tracts of animals, leading to coccidiosis. The disease spreads through the ingestion of oocysts, which are shed in the feces of infected animals. Factors contributing to coccidiosis include:

  1. Overcrowding: High stocking density increases the likelihood of oocyst transmission among birds.
  2. Poor Sanitation: Dirty and damp conditions provide an ideal environment for the survival and transmission of coccidia.
  3. Stress: Environmental stressors, such as sudden changes in temperature or inadequate nutrition, weaken the immune system, making birds more susceptible to infection.
  4. Contaminated Equipment: Oocysts can persist in the environment, contaminating feeders, waterers, and other equipment.

Symptoms of Coccidiosis:

Identifying coccidiosis in poultry is crucial for timely intervention. Common symptoms include:

  1. Diarrhea: Blood-tinged or watery feces is a typical sign of intestinal damage caused by coccidia.
  2. Weight Loss: Infected birds may exhibit reduced growth rates and weight loss.
  3. Dehydration: Severe cases can lead to dehydration due to fluid loss from diarrhea.
  4. Reduced Feed Intake: Birds may show decreased appetite and reluctance to eat.
  5. Ruffled Feathers: General lethargy and unkempt appearance are common signs.

Effective Solutions for Coccidiosis Management:

  1. Coccidiostats: These are medications specifically designed to control coccidiosis. They can be provided in the feed or water to prevent and treat infections.
  2. Improved Sanitation: Regularly clean and disinfect poultry houses, equipment, and feeders to minimize the environmental load of coccidia.
  3. Probiotics: Promoting a healthy gut microbiota can enhance the bird’s natural defenses against coccidiosis.
  4. Rotational Grazing: For free-range poultry, implementing rotational grazing practices can reduce the risk of exposure to contaminated environments.
  5. Nutritional Management: Ensure a balanced diet with proper nutrients to support the bird’s immune system.
  6. Selective Breeding: Some poultry breeds exhibit natural resistance to coccidiosis. Selective breeding for resistance can be a long-term strategy.
  7. Early Detection and Treatment: Regular monitoring for symptoms, coupled with prompt diagnosis and treatment, is essential for minimizing the impact of coccidiosis.

In conclusion, coccidiosis poses a significant threat to poultry health and productivity. A holistic approach involving preventative measures, proper hygiene, and veterinary guidance is essential for effective coccidiosis management. By understanding the causes and implementing targeted solutions, poultry farmers can mitigate the impact of this parasitic disease and maintain a healthy flock.

by Ayo Ibiyemi Ayo Ibiyemi 4 Comments


Starting a poultry business can be a lucrative venture, given the high demand for poultry products such as meat and eggs. However, it requires careful planning, a solid understanding of the industry, and a commitment to maintaining the health and well-being of the poultry. Here are some key steps to consider when starting a poultry business:

  1. Market Research and Business Plan: Conduct thorough market research to understand the demand for poultry products in your target area. Develop a comprehensive business plan that outlines your business goals, target market, competition, and financial projections.
  2. Legal Requirements and Regulations: Familiarize yourself with the legal requirements and regulations governing poultry farming in your location. Obtain the necessary licenses, permits, and certifications to ensure compliance with health and safety standards.
  3. Infrastructure and Equipment: Set up appropriate infrastructure, including poultry housing, feeding and watering systems, ventilation, and lighting. Invest in quality equipment and facilities that promote the well-being and productivity of the poultry.
  4. Poultry Breed Selection: Choose the appropriate poultry breeds based on your business goals and market demand. Consider factors such as egg production, meat quality, disease resistance, and adaptability to local environmental conditions.
  5. Feeding and Nutrition: Develop a well-balanced feeding program that meets the nutritional requirements of the poultry. Ensure access to clean water and a balanced diet that supports growth, productivity, and overall health.
  6. Disease Prevention and Biosecurity Measures: Implement strict biosecurity measures to prevent the outbreak and spread of diseases. Develop a vaccination program in consultation with a poultry health professional to safeguard the health of your poultry flock.
  7. Marketing and Distribution: Create a marketing strategy to promote your poultry products to potential customers. Establish partnerships with local retailers, supermarkets, and restaurants, and consider online platforms and social media to expand your reach.
  8. Financial Management: Monitor your expenses, revenues, and cash flow to ensure the financial sustainability of your poultry business. Keep accurate records of all transactions and seek professional advice when necessary to manage your finances effectively.
  9. Continuous Learning and Adaptation: Stay informed about the latest trends and advancements in poultry farming. Attend workshops, seminars, and industry events to learn from experts and keep up with best practices in poultry management.
  10. Ethical and Sustainable Practices: Adopt ethical and sustainable practices in your poultry business, ensuring the welfare of the poultry and minimizing the environmental impact of your operations. Emphasize humane treatment, responsible waste management, and environmentally friendly practices.

Starting and running a successful poultry business requires dedication, knowledge, and a proactive approach to addressing challenges and seizing opportunities in the industry. Regular monitoring, evaluation, and adaptation of your business strategies will contribute to the long-term success and sustainability of your poultry enterprise.

by Panog Panog 2 Comments

Poultry and Egg Production Today!

Poultry farming and egg production is a lucrative business that can be both rewarding and challenging. It involves the raising of chickens, ducks, turkeys, and other birds for the purpose of producing eggs, meat, and feathers. Poultry farming and egg production requires careful management and planning to ensure the health and safety of the birds, as well as the quality of the eggs and meat produced.

The first step in poultry farming and egg production is to select the right breed of birds for the desired purpose. Different breeds of birds have different characteristics, such as egg production, meat production, and feather production. It is important to select the right breed for the desired purpose, as this will determine the success of the poultry farm.

Once the breed of birds has been selected, the next step is to create a suitable environment for the birds. This includes providing adequate housing, food, water, and ventilation. The housing should be designed to provide the birds with enough space to move around and to protect them from predators. The food should be of high quality and provide the birds with the necessary nutrients for growth and egg production. Water should be provided in a clean and safe manner, and the ventilation should be adequate to prevent the spread of disease.

The next step is to ensure the health and safety of the birds. This includes providing regular veterinary care, as well as monitoring the birds for signs of disease or injury. It is also important to provide the birds with a clean and safe environment, free from predators and other hazards.

Finally, it is important to manage the egg production and marketing of the eggs. This includes setting up a system for collecting, grading, and packaging the eggs, as well as marketing the eggs to customers. It is also important to keep accurate records of the egg production and sales, as this will help to ensure the success of the poultry farm.

Poultry farming and egg production can be a rewarding and profitable business, but it requires careful management and planning to ensure the health and safety of the birds, as well as the quality of the eggs and meat produced. With the right management and planning, a poultry farm can be a successful and profitable business.

by Panog Panog No Comments

Poultry Farmers Cry As Investments Shrink

Nigerian poultry farmers are angry. Their problems are growing in a vicious circle which has plunged the industry into deepening crisis.

Since 2019, the farmers have been wailing and kicking over sudden unpredicted rise in the cost of inputs such as maize and soybeans, which constitute about 70 per cent of the feed components.

This forced a bag of feed to rise from N2,700 to N5,600 within 12 months and has remained so in the last 36 months.

In addition to the cost of maize which swelled from N140,000 to N223,000 per metric tonne, the inability of the farmers to access vaccines for their birds against Avian Influenza (bird flu) has further worsened their situation.

Mr Idowu Asenuga who has been a poultry farmer for over 25 years is bitter with what the poultry industry is going through in the country. For him, the government is not even listening to them and the industry is shrinking by the day.

Asenuga, who is the Ogun State chairperson of the Poultry Association of Nigeria, does not foresee a better future for the industry unless government change its policy on vaccines, compensation, maize and soybeans.

In an interview with our reporter, he said despite the fact that egg is the cheapest source of protein in Nigeria, unfortunately, the federal government has not been supporting the poultry industry.

Mr Idowu Asenuga who has been a poultry farmer for over 25 years is bitter with what the poultry industry is going through in the country. For him, the government is not even listening to them and the industry is shrinking by the day.

Asenuga, who is the Ogun State chairperson of the Poultry Association of Nigeria, does not foresee a better future for the industry unless government change its policy on vaccines, compensation, maize and soybeans.

In an interview with our reporter, he said despite the fact that egg is the cheapest source of protein in Nigeria, unfortunately, the federal government has not been supporting the poultry industry.

“Farms that have been affected by avian influenza, government is not protecting them and they are not allowing them to protect their farms by vaccination. So, we found it counter-productive and very worrisome and this is affecting the industry, the poultry industry is shrinking and people are losing their jobs, coupled with the fact that our members are not even secured; they are being kidnapped and killed on daily basis,” he said.

Secondly, the PANOG chair said because of the current state of the poultry industry, farmers find it difficult to get funding from commercial banks.

“As a commercial farmer and chairman of the PANOG, I tried to seek succor from one of the commercial banks and I was turned back. So, you can’t even get support from commercial banks; they will tell you the poultry industry is not vibrant and they won’t lend you money. It’s hell for us right now as we speak and unfortunately governments at all levels are not coming to our aid,” he stated.

Thirdly, on the issue of maize and soybean, he said “We find it very worrisome that at the peak of COVID, banditry, kidnapping, that was when government chose to ban forex for the importation of maize. The logical thing is that if any country cannot produce sufficient food, the rational thing for you to do is to import pending when you are able to produce enough. This has spelt a lot of doom for the poultry industry. Most of our members have closed shop because the price of maize and soy have gone beyond their reach. Last year, the price of maize was N90,000 before the ban but today before the new harvest, it was selling for N250,000 per tonne and a bag of layer feed for instance that was N2800 now sells for about N5,600 that is 100 per cent increase and feed constitutes about 80 per cent cost of production. If anything happens to the maize and soy, the cost of production goes up. That same period last year, a crate of egg was selling for 800 and 900. And it is impossible for us to double the price of egg while the price of maize of soy have double, that is the challenge we are having,” he said.

The poultry sector consumes about 50 per cent of maize produce in Nigeria and a collapsed poultry industry will also drastically affect the maize and soybeans farmers.

The farmers said the first thing government needs to do is to put a waiver on the importation of maize and make forex available for farmers who are willing to import to feed their birds, adding that if there is no import, the price of maize will not be checked.

Secondly, some farmers’ positon on vaccines is that government needs to allow them import avian influenza vaccines to vaccinate their birds and protect their investments.

Above all, they want government to look at targeted funding towards the poultry sector specifically at single digit interest rate so that farmers can easily pay back. They argued that borrowing at 28 and 30 per cent interest rates is not sustainable.

A source at the Federal Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development said FG’s policy on Avian Influenza is eradication and not vaccination, stressing that vaccination allows the disease to remain and continue to mutate. 

by Panog Panog No Comments


The rainy season is usually synonymous with an increase in relative humidity and a reduction in temperature; rainfall affects both the quality and quantity of feeding, while wind speed has an impact on the outbreak of diseases.

With the arrival of the rainy season, farmer needs to give a little bit more care and attention towards his crops along with the livestock. As we know, poultry farming is continuously growing as the most profitable agribusiness across the globe including India. However, monsoon comes as a challenging season for poultry farmers which could be very tormenting. As the rainy and cold season brings changes in temperature and weather conditions, it leaves a deep impact to the poultry farm. You need to know that weather conditions play a vital role in poultry farming as well. Hence, as a poultry farmer, it is very important to learn how to operate a poultry farm during rainy seasons.

Poultry birds and poultry production are generally affected by seasonal climatic or weather changes. For instance, in the wet or cold season, chickens eat more feed, drink less water and huddle together to generate heat and keep themselves warm. On the other hand, chickens and other livestock birds consume less feed and drink more water in the hot season or weather in order to cool their body. These changes affect the production of birds, most especially laying birds, as egg production is reduced in extremely cold or hot weather. This reduction in egg production occurs because when there are extreme cold or hot conditions, these birds are stressed, and their ability to withstand diseases or immune system is seriously affected.

It is always better to repair the house before the arrival of the rainy season and to clear the drainage ditch around the chicken house. When it rains, close the doors and windows or let the curtains open to prevent rain from entering the house and prevent the chickens from getting cold or other problems

One should reserve enough dry padding. The thick padding should be turned over and keep the padding dry. The wet agglomerated padding should be cleaned out of the house and reduce the ammonia concentration in the house.

Prevent the feed ingredients from getting wet, and the amount of feed should not be too much. The compound feed in the house should be placed on the platform above the ground to prevent the feed from regaining moisture and mildew in your battery cage for sale.

Under the influence of the rainy season of battery cage for layers, the humidity in the chicken house is increased, the litter is moist, the feed is mildewed, some production units cannot obtain clean drinking water, etc., which may lead to coccidiosis, E. coli outbreak, and elevated ammonia concentration. The risk of mycotoxin poisoning and respiratory disease infection increases.

Birds usually increase their level of feed intake to generate heat and stay warm during the rainy season/winter. However, for a farmer, increasing the level of feed provision raises the cost of production besides wastage of nutrients that are not needed for heat generation. To reduce costs and avoid wastage, energy-rich sources like oil/fat should be added to the diet or the level of other nutrients may be reduced keeping the energy at the same level.

In a free-range system, provide supplementary feeding to the birds to meet their nutrient deficit. Consider providing your birds with warm water periodically during this rainy season to encourage consumption and help them keep warm without using up energy reserved in the process.

With the rain, birds may encounter standing water (mostly in free-range) and end up drinking from the ground leading to parasitic infestation from intestinal worms.

De-wormers administered after every three months help in the management of worms but you should remember the product withdrawal period as specified by the manufacturer.

Poultry house should be designed in such a way that it provides all the comfort required by birds during cold season while considering ventilation as well. In regions where it rains heavily, the floor should be raised with a generous roof overhang, particularly over the entrance.

The raised floor can be a solid platform of the earth to prevent floods. Orientation of a building with respect to wind and sun consequently influence temperature and light on different external surfaces. With better management, your flock will remain healthy and productive throughout the cold season.

Wet litter condition may arise due to overcrowding, diarrhoea and excessive salt in the diet besides seepage from the roof. Wet litter condition should be prevented as it may lead to burnt hock condition, E.coli infection, coccidiosis etc. 

Hence proper housing space or stocking density along with proper ventilation should be ensured. Excessive caking of the litter should be prevented as it may lead to abrasions in the extremities and hock joint. Wet litter can be prevented by the frequent stirring of the litter.